E-1 and E-2 visa:

The Immigration and Nationality Act provides nonimmigrant visa status for a national of a country with which the United States maintains a treaty of commerce and navigation who is coming to the United States to carry on substantial trade, including trade in services or technology, principally between the United States and the treaty country, or to develop and direct the operations of an enterprise in which the national has invested, or is in the process of investing a substantial amount of capital.

Requirements, Treaty Trader (E-1):


  • The applicant must be a national of a treaty country;
  • The trading firm for which the applicant is coming to the U. S. must have the nationality of the treaty country;
  • The international trade must be "substantial" in the sense that there is a sizable and continuing volume of trade;
  • The trade must be principally between the U.S. and the treaty country, which is defined to mean that more than 50 percent of the international trade involved must be between the U.S. and the country of the applicant's nationality;
  • Trade means the international exchange of goods, services, and technology;
  • Title of the trade items must pass from one party to the other;
  • The applicant must be employed in a supervisory or executive capacity, or possess highly specialized skills essential to the efficient operation of the firm.

Ordinary skilled or unskilled workers do not qualify.


Requirements, Treaty Investor (E-2):


  • The investor, either a real or corporate person, must be a national of a treaty country;
  • The investment must be substantial. It must be sufficient to ensure the successful operation of the enterprise. The percentage of investment for a low-cost business enterprise must be higher than the percentage of investment in a high-cost enterprise;
  • The investment must be a real operating enterprise. Speculative or idle investment does not qualify. Uncommitted funds in a bank account or similar security are not considered an investment;
  • The investment may not be marginal. It must generate significantly more income than just to provide a living to the investor and family, or it must have a significant economic impact in the United States;
  • The investor must have control of the funds, and the investment must be at risk in the commercial sense. Loans secured with the assets of the investment enterprise are not allowed;
  • The investor must be coming to the U.S. to develop and direct the enterprise. If the applicant is not the principal investor, he or she must be employed in a supervisory, executive, or highly specialized skill capacity.

Again, ordinary skilled and unskilled workers do not qualify.

Family Members:


Spouses and unmarried children under 21 years of age, regardless of nationality, may receive derivative E visas in order to accompany the principal alien. The spouse of an E visa holder may apply to the USCIS for employment authorization. Dependent children of an E visa holder are not authorized to work in the United States.


Time Limits:

Holders of E-1 and E-2 visas may reside in the United States as long as they continue to maintain their status with the enterprise.


E-3 visa:

Australian professionals may come to the U.S. under the terms of a recent trade agreement with Australia, to perform work in a professional specialty occupation, i.e. a job for which a related bachelorís degree is the normal minimum for entry-level employment, and for which they have the appropriate educational credentials. The U.S. employer must offer to pay the prevailing wage for the job, and must file a Labor Condition Application with the Department of Labor to affirm the wage offer. E-3 visas are granted for a period of two years, renewable in two year increments.


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